In 1946, the Chicago Convention was promulgated in Brazil by decree 21,713, of August 27th, 1946. By article 37 of the Convention, the Contracting States have undertaken to collaborate in securing the highest practicable degree of uniformity in regulations, in which such uniformity would facilitate the activities of civil aviation.
To this end, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has issued several documents - now called "Annexes" - establishing practices and standards on various subjects that make up civil aviation, most of them with the objective of establishing minimum levels of safety.
The Brazilian Aeronautical Code (CBA – Law Nr. 7,565, of December 19th, 1986), in its article 25, establishes that the aeronautical infrastructure is also destined to promote the safety, regularity, and efficiency of civil aviation.
By Law No. 11,182, of September 27, 2005, it was established that ANAC is responsible for promoting safety, regularity, and efficiency in all aspects of civil aviation, except for the air traffic control system and the aeronautical accident investigation system.
The air traffic control system follows various Annexes of the Chicago Convention, including Annexes 3 (Meteorological Services), 4 (aeronautical charts), 10 (aeronautical telecommunications), 11 (air traffic services), 12 (search and rescue), and 15 (aeronautical information services). In Brazil, the subject is in charge of the Department of Airspace Control (DECEA) subordinate to the Aeronautical Command (COMAER).
The aeronautical accident investigation and prevention system follows Annex 13 of the Chicago Convention, which provides guidelines for the agencies that are responsible for the investigation of accidents in each country. In Brazil, the agency responsible for accident investigation is the Aeronautical Accidents Investigation and Prevention Center (CENIPA), also subordinate to the COMAER.
On January 1st, 2009, ICAO effectively implemented the Safety Management System (SMS), translated into Brazil as Sistema de Gerenciamento da Segurança Operacional (SGSO), through amendments in Annexes 1, 6, 8, 11, 13 and 14 of Chicago Convention, which were compiled to give rise, in 2013, to Annex 19, specific to the theme SMS. With the SMS, the concept of flight safety extends to a systemic and comprehensive approach, considering all aspects that involve safety in the operation of an aircraft and promoting the continuous improvement of safety levels.
According to Annex 19, each signatory State should establish its own State Safety Program, consistent with the size and complexity of civil aviation activities developed under its regulation and supervision, and aimed at achieving an acceptable level of safety performance.
As in Brazil there are several bodies involved in the management of civil aviation, the Brazilian Civil Aviation Safety Programme (SSP-BR / PSO-BR) establishes as a strategy for the safety of civil aviation the elaboration and implementation of specific programs for ANAC and COMAER.